Skilled Manpower-Human Resources and Employment Opportunity

This article contains the exercises of lesson 3 of the social studies chapter “Skilled Manpower-Human Resources and Employment Opportunity”. Skilled Manpower-Human Resources and Employment Opportunity– All Exercise Solved, Class -12, New Course – 2078

Lesson – 3

Infrastructure of Development:

Skilled Manpower-Human Resources and Employment Opportunity


Very Short Answer Questions

1.    What do you mean by resource and means?

Ans- The way or method or instrument, by which a result is achieved is called means. The natural, economic, political, or human assets of a nation are called resources.


2.    What are the types of resources? Write with examples.

Ans- The types of resources are:

(a)   Natural Resource

The resource which are available in nature freely and which can be used for economic gain is called Natural Resource. For eg: Minerals, forests, rivers, hills, etc.

(b)  Human Resource

people who are experts in doing certain tasks efficiently and contribute to the area of the country called Human resources. For eg: Teachers, doctors, development a are engineers, pilots, etc.


3.    Which profession do want to adopt in future? Why? Give reasons.

Ans- I want to adopt the agricultural profession in the future because Nepal is an agricultural county. I want to carry out commercial agriculture to support the agro-based industry.


4.    Skilled Human Resources is the foundation of prosperous Nepal, Why? (SEE,2072 AP)

Ans- Only the Skilled Human Resources can utilize the available means and resources properly. So, Human Resources is the foundation of prosperous Nepal.


5.    Write any two measures to produce Skilled Human Resources.

Ans- The two measures to produce Skilled Human Resources are as follows:

·       Providing youths with technical and vocational education, and

·       Giving opportunities to people according to need and interest.


Short Answer Questions


1.    Highlight the importance of skilled manpower.

Ans- The person who is an expert in doing certain tasks efficiently is called the skilled human resource. They are very important for the development of a country. The importance of skilled human power is as follows:

·       To utilize natural resources for development.

·       For sustainable development of the country.

·       To develop infrastructure of development.

·       To expand economic and industrial activities.

·       To give the right direction to the development of the country.

2.    Why skilled manpower is considered an infrastructure of development? Give reasons.

Ans- The base of development of the country is skilled manpower. There is no possibility of developing the country without skilled manpower. Skilled human power is considered the infrastructure of development because of the following reasons:

·       They contribute to developing agriculture, trade, industry, tourism, etc.

·       They fulfill the human necessities.

·       They help to guide the nation on the right path.

·       They utilize natural resources for human benefits.

·       They contribute to constructing infrastructure like transport, communication, electricity, health, education, and so on.



3.    What are the measures to produce skilled manpower in the country?

Ans- Skilled manpower is very essential for the prosperity of the country. In absence of it, the country can’t progress. There’re several measures to produce skilled manpower in the country. Some of the measures are as follows:

·       Practical and quality education should be provided to all

·       Develop a technical and vocational education system according to the need of the country

·       Training opportunities should be given to the people as per their interest

·       Updating the knowledge with developed information technology

·       Study, observation, research, etc. should be done,

·       Formulation and implementation of science education policy as per the demand of time.

4.    Clarify the relationship between skilled resources and employment opportunities.

Ans- Skilled human resources are the people having knowledge, higher education, and technical knowledge. There is an interrelationship between skilled manpower and employment opportunities. The skilled manpower can get jobs easily compared to other manpower. They can generate self-employment based on their qualification, skill, and knowledge. The people with knowledge need not stay unemployed. If the people have no technical knowledge, education, etc. they can take training and be skilled in a certain job. The person having training doesn’t lack the jobs. A person having no skill and education should face the challenge to get a job. People having knowledge and education can create self-employment. For example, doctors, nurses, H.A., lab technicians can work in health sectors, engineers can get a job in the construction project, etc. So, there is a close relationship between skilled manpower and employment.


5.    Write an essay on the topic “Interrelationship between natural resource and human resource”


Interrelationship between natural resources and human resources

Natural resources are gifted by the nature. They are rivers, lakes, forests, wildlife, Mt. peak, mineral, air, water, solar light, etc. Similarly, human resources are the people who are experts in doing certain tasks effectively and efficiently. They are skillful in several tasks. For the development of the country, there must be an adjustment between human resources and natural The development cannot be imagined resources. without utilizing natural resources. Natural resources should be utilized for running development activities. For example: mineral is necessary for industrial products, medicinal herbs for preparing medicines, water for hydropower, etc. All resource above-mentioned production is possible with the help of skilled manpower. To either run a large project or a small project, there is a vital role of manpower.

Development of the country without nature is not possible and it is inevitable for resources to utilize natural for development. Natural resources should be utilized resources continuously for development. Similarly, for the maximum optimum utilization of natural resources, sufficient production of skilled human power is necessary for the country.


6.    The Report of National Planning Commission-2013, shows that the poverty of Nepal has decreased to 23.8%. Why is poverty decreasing in Nepal? Give reasons.

Ans- The report of National Planning Commission-2013, shows that the poverty of Nepal has decreased to 23%. Poverty in Nepal has decreased because of the following reasons:


·       Improvement of living standard of people due to remittance from foreign employment.

·       Decreasing dependency on agriculture.

·       Increasement in employment due to development in private sectors like private schools, colleges, banks, etc.

·       Increased poverty eradicating projects by several donor countries and agencies.

·       Increasing literacy rate, production of skilled human resources, and trend of self-employment.


7.    “A skilled manpower can produce more manpower.” Justify the statement with an example.

Ans- Skilled human powers are the persons who are experts in certain jobs due to higher education, training and technical knowledge, etc. Skilled manpower can train and educate other people and can make others an expert in the job. For eg: teachers train and educate the students in several subjects. Similarly, a social worker can impress other people and encourages others to involve in social service. many manners, a trainer also trains in different subject and prepares expert in the same So, there is no necessity of a large number of people to transform society. To transfer the society, a few capable people are enough. Because of the inspiration, encouragement, and support of a few able and expert people, several people can become an expert too. Hence, skilled manpower can produce more manpower.


8.    Write a model of speech on the topic “Development of a country is not possible without the production of skilled manpower”.

Ans- Respected Chairperson,

Chief guest, guests, Judges,

Teachers, and dear friends.

I am thankful to the organizer for giving me a golden opportunity to deliver a speech on ‘Development of a country is not possible without the production of skilled manpower. I request permission to express my view.


Skilled manpower is those people who have gained skill, knowledge, training, and experience in any field. To think about the development without human power is like to think of fish without water. Only availability of the natural resource is not enough for development. It needs human power for development too. We need human power to construct any kind of development work in the country. We can take the example of developed countries like Japan and China. They have made tremendous progress in a few decades. The main cause of this is the production and mobilization of enough required human resources. Those countries provided technical education and training to the youths and were motivated for involvement in development work. The government gave priority to the infrastructure of development. The citizens of those countries established industries and employed the youths. Hundreds of youths got job opportunities. Because of this, these countries are at the pinnacle of development. (Bell rings)

At last, I want to say that skilled human power is the pillar of development. They are the source of development of a country. Hence, the development of a country is not possible without the production of skilled manpower.

Thank You.


9.    What do you mean by means and resources? Are there enough means and resources available for the development of Nepal?

Ans- The basic requirement needed to develop the infrastructures is called the means and resources. Land, rivers, minerals, forest, skilled manpower, etc. are few of the means and resources of a country.

There are enough means and resources available for the development of Nepal because:

·       We have many rivers from which we can generate plenty of electricity and irrigate our land.

·       Nepal is a country that is full of natural beauty such as the Himalayas, fast-flowing rivers, lakes, etc. which can help to develop tourism in Nepal.

·       We have lots of fertile lands which produce plenty of food and cash crops.

10.           Differentiate between Natural and Human Resources in four points. (SLC-2070)

Ans- Natural resources and human resources are complementary to each other. The good coordination and adjustment of each other promote national development. Without these resources, the progress of the country is not possible. Following is the difference between natural resources and human resources:

Natural Resources

Human Resources

The resources which are available in nature are called natural resources.

Human resources refer to the human power which contributes to mobilizing the natural resources.

Natural resources are categorized in different ways like renewable, non-renewable, etc.

Human resources are classified as skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled.

Natural resources are static and there is no future or a new generation of natural resources.

Human resources are dynamic and it goes from generation to generation with a gradual variation.

Availability of natural resources like land, water, forest, minerals, etc. affects the development of a place.

Human power is the most important resource because only human power can mobilize other means and resources of a place.


11.           The development of a country is not possible without skilled human power. Nepal, at first, does not produce enough skilled human power that it needs. Whatever skilled human power it produces, are leaving to foreign countries. What are the reasons behind it? Discuss in groups and find the solutions to this problem.

Ans The reasons for the skilled human power to migrate to foreign countries are as follows:

v There is no effective human resource plan and program for the proper use of the existing human resources of the country.

v Political instability and frequent change in policy have brought a big problem to mobilize national resources and create job opportunities.

v There is a lack of practical and job-oriented education and similarly, there is no long-term vision for sustainable development in our country.


v People want to be free from the problems created by low salaries, career instability, and prejudice in the country. So, they are attracted to developed countries.


The solutions to this problem are as follows:

v More industries should be established in different parts of the country. For this, the government should make encouraging policies and provisions of providing loans at low interest.

v Stable government having a clear vision to utilize the existing human resources.

v Practical and job-oriented education systems should be provided.

v Promote a strong feeling of nationality in the country by removing corruption prejudice and uncertainty.

12.           Despite Nepal being rich in natural heritage, there is no proper mobilization of these resources. How can such means and resources be properly used for the development of the country? Write any four measures.

Ans- Any four measures to utilize the natural resources are as follows:

a)    We have plenty of water resources. Micro hydropower projects can be operated by mobilizing the local community.

Similarly, the private sector should be encouraged to invest in hydro-power.


b)   Plenty of natural herbs are found in different areas. Our country can earn lots of foreign currencies by exporting them. For this government should make a good arrangement of collecting it.


c)     The natural diversity and beauty of our country can be used for the development of tourist destinations and tourism.



d) Plenty of land is left barren or uncultivated in the village areas of Nepal. Such lands can be used to grow various types of cash crops, fruits, and vegetables.


13.           Nepalese skilled manpower are leaving for foreign countries. Write a letter to your friend stating he had better work in his own country learning skillful training instead of going on abroad. (SLC-2067, CDR)



Jan. 10th, 2014

Dear Suman,

Last Sunday I got your letter. You have expressed your desire to go overseas to work and earn. But, I want to suggest you stay in your own country doing the work of your choice. There is a lack of human resources in our own country. There are several institutions to provide skillful training. You can take the training of your interest and run your own business or take a job here. The government of Nepal has established Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT) to provide training in various sectors.

No country in the world has made progress by sending its citizens to an overseas country. One gets due respect only when his own country is developed. But it is sad to say that our own country is still poor and underdeveloped. Those Nepalese who are working in other countries such as Bahadur and Kanchhas are shedding their blood and sweat for the development of other countries. Therefore, I suggest you take the proper training and work in our own country.




14.           Write any four needs and importance of skilled human power.

Ans- Skilled human power is needed for the sustainable development of a country. The country should be able to produce enough, efficient and trained human power every year according to the need and requirements of the country. Skilled human power can be produced by providing technical, vocational, and skill developing education. The need and importance of human power are as follows:

i) For the sustainable development of a country.

ii) For better use and protection of natural resources.

iii) For the expansion of economic and industrial activities, and iv) To enhance the economic status of the nation by substituting foreign manpower and foreign goods.


15.           How can natural means and resources be properly utilized for national development? Write in four points.

Ans- Natural resources and means are inseparable factors from human welfare and well-being. Its proper utilization enhances national development. If natural resources are utilized, the country can make tremendous progress in social and economic fields. The following ways can be fruitful to utilize natural resources and means:

                                                                   i.            Maintenance of political stability,

                                                                 ii.            Far-sighted planning and effective implementation of it.

                                                              iii.            Providing modern technical, vocational, and practical education for the production of skilled manpower, and

                                                              iv.            Increasement and encouragement for people’s participation in development.

16.           Write any four efforts made by the government to prepare skilled human resources?

Ans- Skilled manpower is key to national development. A country’s success and failure depend on the availability and the number of manpower. The government should give priority to preparing skilled human power. In recent years, the government has made various efforts to prepare human power. The efforts made by the government are as follows:

i)                   Government has started to provide technical education, scientific education, etc. from the school level,

ii)                The trend to establish training centers has been increased nowadays for practical education,

iii)              The government has coordinated with NGOs, INGOs, and developed countries for preparing skilled manpower, and

iv)              The government has made the policy of developing education facilities and services.

17.           Analyze the role of skilled human resources in the economic development in federalism.

Ans- Skilled human resources are the backbone of economic development. In federalism, different states have distinct types of natural resources and means. To utilize these resources and means, skilled human power is very important. The state would not be competitive with other states if skilled human resources are absent. The concept of balance and proportionate development in federalism will be materialized with the support of skilled human power. Nepal is a developing country. It has to develop social, economic, political, cultural, and religious aspects after the implementation of federalism. As Nepal is divided into 7 provinces, there is an immediate need to carry out several development works in each of the provinces. Every state has to prepare the required number of manpower for the development of its respective states. For better development of the states, the skilled human power has to prepare farsighted plans and programs; and the planning must be effectively implemented. Skilled human resources can make planning to utilize the available resources and means of the state properly. They carry out the development programs without over sustainably using the resources. Skilled human resources can teach or train others and increase public participation in development. So, skilled human resources play a vital role in the economic development in federalism.


18.           Why is ‘skilled human resources’ necessary for the development of a country?

Ans- The people who are experts in doing certain tasks efficiently and contribute to the development of a country are called skilled human resources. They have specific skills and knowledge in a particular field. They can utilize the available resources for development. Skilled human resources are necessary for the development because of the following reasons:

i)                   For better use and protection of resources,

ii)                For sustainable development of the nation,

iii)              For qualitative and large scale production of goods and services,

iv)              To expand economic and industrial activities,

v)                For enhancing the economic status of the nation by substituting foreign manpower and goods.

19.           Mention the role of natural and human resources for the development of a country. Explain in brief in four points.

Ans- Natural resources are the gift of nature whereas human resources are the result of the investment, education, and training. The important role of natural and human resources for the development of a country is as follows:

a. Natural scenes and scenery attract the foreigners that help to earn foreign currency which can be used for development.

b. Various raw materials are found in nature which helps to establish industries.

c. Human resources utilize the natural resources and means for development.

d. Human resources can focus on sustainable development for both consumption and protection of nature and natural resources.


20.           What is skilled human resource? What kind of skilled human resource does the man in the picture want? Differentiate between short picture resources and long-term human resources. Write two points only.

Ans: A person who is an expert in doing certain tasks efficiently is called a skilled human resource. Doctors, engineers, mechanics, carpenters, etc. are some examples of skilled human resources. The skilled human resource wanted in the picture is a computer operator

Differences between long term human resources and short term human resources are as follows:

Short term human resource

Long term human resource

The human resource prepared to fulfill the need for a short period is called short-term human resource.

The human resource prepared to fulfill the need for a long period is called long-term human resource.

It is prepared to fulfill the immediate need. Training on beekeeping, silk production, etc. are examples of it.

It is prepared to fulfill the need of the country for a long time like computer training, science & technology, etc.



21.           Which occupation do you like to follow in future and why? Give as many reasons as possible.

Ans- I want to follow business as my occupation in the future because it is my family profession. For many generations, this has been the main occupation in my family. My nature and habit also match this occupation because I cannot work under the command of others. I cannot work for a fixed salary. One can make good progress in his/her own business rather than working for others. I am good at mathematics and accounting. I am also good at the different strategies of the business. I am hardworking and can work for long hours. I cannot tell lie. I cannot dance and play musical instruments. I do not like to waste time on unnecessary things like gambling, taking alcohol, etc. There are very limited opportunities available at present. If you have your own business, you should not move door to door to find a job.

I do not want to go to a foreign country because I am confident that I can make progress in my own country doing my own business.


22.           “Developing countries should spend a large amount of money in the development of education.” Do you agree? Give reasons.


Ans- Yes, I agree with this statement because education is the base of all infrastructures for the development of a country. Education is knowledge and power. Education produces skilled human resources who can utilize the resources of a country. The development of a country will be possible through the utilization of natural resources. No country in the world has made progress without the development of education. Science and technology should be developed to develop the country and they can be developed only through education. Basic infrastructures of development like transport, communication, health, electricity, drinking water, etc. can be developed only after the development of education. Industry, trade and commerce, technology, etc. will be developed if there are plenty of educated human resources. Therefore, developing countries should spend a large amount of money on the development of education.

23.           What sort of human resource does the following picture show? In what areas does the human resource shown in the picture help to develop the country?

Ans- The picture shows the skilled human resource of the health sector. This type of human resource helps to improve the condition of health in the country. Skilled human resources are scarce in the health sector in our country. Many people in rural areas are dying due to a lack of health services in their areas. There is a lack of doctors, nurses, health workers, and medicines in Nepal. This type of human power helps to serve the people and save the lives of many people. Health facility is very essential for the development of any country because health is one of the important infrastructures of development


24.           Write any four efforts made by the government to prepare the skilled manpower. (SLC 2066, FWDR)

Ans: The four efforts made by the government to prepare the skilled manpower are as follows:

(a) Government has established an institution called CTEVT (Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training) to provide short-term and long-term training to the people like hotel management, plumbing, electrician, etc.

(b)            Job-orientated skilled training is being given to the women of rural areas like knitting. producing handicraft goods, mushroom production, etc.

(c) Government has been giving priority to technical education for this, affiliation has been given to many colleges to establish engineering, medical, nursing and other technical colleges So, several medical, engineering and other technical institutions have been established throughout the country which is producing much skilled human power

(d)            The education programs on new subjects like Information Technology, Rural development Pilot training, etc. have been started to produce the skilled human resource to fulfill the need of the country.


25.           What are the roles that can be played by skilled human power for the development of a country?


Write a paragraph on ‘Skilled Human Power for Development.

Ans: Human power is considered very important amongst the various essential means and resources for the development like capital (money), materials, method, information, etc. Development scholars focus on the view that both means and goals of development should be human. The use of other resources without human power is almost impossible. Skilled human resources can:

·       Conduct economic activities, create employment opportunities and increase the income of people by the scientific mobilization of available means and resources of the country.

·       Develop and manage infrastructures of development like education, health, drinking water electricity, communication, etc. by using their efficiency and skill.

·       Formulate and implement the plan and policies for sustainable and proportional development based on empirical and scientific research.

·       Uplift all sectors and bring positive change in the life of people of the nation through the development and use of modern scientific tools and technology.

·       Carry out remarkable improvement in the fields of social development like education, health, social equality, etc.

26.           The government of Nepal has recently declared the “Social Security Fund” to all the employees. What do you know about it? Give your opinion about the total implementation of it. (PABSON Board Exam, 2075)

Ans- The government of Nepal launched a contribution-based security scheme on 11″ Mangsir2075. It will prove to be a milestone in enhancing the cardinal relationship between workers (government officers and private officers) and employers, as per stakeholders. As per the plan, private sector employees will have to mandatorily contribute 11 percent of their basic salary to the fund while employers have to percent of the employees’ basic salary. Once these contributions are contributed 20 or cannot attend made, employees will be entitled to compensation if they lose a job workplace because of pregnancy, illness or accident, or any other problems. the fund collected SSF will allocate 3.22 percent for medical treatment, health OF the total dependent family security, and 91.39 and maternity security. It will allow 0.78 percent of old age security in the name of pension. Its success or failure depends on its implementation. If it is implemented properly, about 3.5 million employees will be benefited. Till now, I have not seen any sign of total implementation of the scheme. Many employees are unknown about it and the employers in the private sector are trying to ignore it. So, for the total implementation of this, the government should make strict regulations, and supervise each private business house, school, and college. The employees also should raise this issue to get their rights to be secured. Otherwise, the scheme of government can’t be implemented too easily and quickly.


27.           Which profession would you like to carry out in the future? Why?

Ans There is no doubt that I would like to be a teacher though it is not considered well. A paid profession in Nepal. But I don’t think any profession can surpass the teaching profession. The reasons why I like to follow teaching as a profession are as follows

·       Teachers are considered the guardians of the social civilization; I want to be a teacher to be a social forerunner.

·       following other professions is changing the self, but by being a teacher we can change the mass.

·       Today’s students are the future pillar of the nation so it’s a matter of immense pride to make intimate friends and work together with the future stars.

·       I want to contribute to the development of the nation by making students patriotic (Sweating in the native land rather than going to an alien country.)














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